White Papers

Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle Principles Workshop©

This Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle Principles Workshop provides an overview to cogeneration and combined-cycle powerplants, including primers on gas turbines; heat recovery steam generators; steam turbines and condensers; methodologies for executing a plant from conception through to synchronization and operation; and operations and maintenance concepts. Typical examples of simple-cycle, cogeneration, combined-cycle and combined-cycle cogeneration plants are provided.

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Boiler Environmental Issues - Air Emissions©

This paper presents a summary of environmental guidelines, rules and regulations presently in Ontario for boilers. Proposed new rules and regulations and those being implemented are also presented. The review focuses on recent and proposed changes which impact boiler owners and operators. The paper also discusses the various boiler air pollutants and methods to control and minimize those pollutants.

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Condenser Applications©

This paper describes the many types of condensing systems which can be installed on the exhaust of condensing-type steam turbines, depending upon the type of condensing application and/or location of the facility. This paper presents and illustrates brief descriptions of several types of condensers and their applications.

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Understanding Gas Turbine Performance©

This paper is a primer presenting an explanation of typical gas turbine and GTG package rating methods and why and how they are corrected. It provides an accurate real-life picture of the performance envelope of a unit for the examiner's evaluation.

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Microgrids – Technology Selection

This presentation focuses on the benefits of microgrids. A microgrid is defined as a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that act as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid.

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Load Management Systems – Critical Equipment for Successful CHP Projects

This presentation focuses on Load Management Systems (LMS), which provide several key supervisory and control functions for a CHP project. CHA has been the design engineer for multiple CHP projects which have successfully included an LMS system.

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UMass Memorial Medical Center CCHP Project Case Study

CHA Canada and CHA teamed with Cogen Power Technologies and Bette and Cring Construction to provide a 2.65 MW natural gas fired engine generator that will provide hot water, steam and chilled water to supplement the power, heating and cooling loads to the UMass Memorial Medical Center located in Worcester, MA. The plant is designed to import and export power, and under most conditions, provide all of the hospital’s electric needs.

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Boiler Plant Replacement and Retrofit - Case Studies©

This paper reviews two recent boiler replacement and retrofit projects that CHA Canada engineered. In the first project reviewed, a completely new replacement boiler plant was installed at the Henderson General Division of the Hamilton Civic Hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario. In the second project reviewed, two new 110,000 lb/hr, 400 psig, 600 deg F package boilers were installed to replace existing boilers at Cornell University's Central Heating Plant in Ithaca, New York.

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Steam Turbine Applications©

This paper describes how steam turbines can be applied for Electrical Power Generation or Mechanical Drive Application. In the Electrical Power Generation section, a BASE CASE for a typical industrial facility is described. In the Mechanical Power Applications section, a simple cost-and-performance illustration of the replacement of electric motor driven boiler feedwater pumps and boiler FD fans, with mechanical-drive steam turbines is provided.

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Gas Turbine Applications©

This paper describes how gas turbines can be applied into service for Electrical Power Generation or Mechanical Drive Application. A BASE CASE for a typical industrial facility is described in the Electrical Power Generation section. In the Mechanical Power Applications section, the BASE CASE scenario is a typical utility pipeline gas compressor application using a mechanical drive gas turbine. The paper finishes with general discussions on turbine selection criteria, including turbine sizing considerations and aero-derivative vs. heavy-duty industrial comparisons.

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Electrical System Modifications Resulting in Increased Operating Reliability of CHP Facility

This case study focuses on CHA's work at the UMass Amherst physical plant, improving the reliability of its award winning CHP facility. The campus was experiencing a significant number of turbine trips and subsequent load shed events and campus facility power outages. CHA evaluated the system and developed recommendations to improve the resiliency and reliability of the new 9 MW combustion gas turbine combined heat and power plant.

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Solar Photovoltaic Generation Protection and Control Design Case Study

This case study discusses the University of Massachusetts PV Interconnection Project. UMass Amherst decided to add 3.4 MW of solar photovoltaic generation under a PPA. CHA’s impact study revealed certain conditions where generation could exceed the available load and actually export power to the grid. To enable the PPA project to proceed, CHA implemented a scheme to control the amount of excess generation and avoid a power export condition.

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Preserving Boiler Plant Efficiency by Better Maintenance©

The first section of this paper reviews the establishment of a computerized maintenance/materials management system (MMS) for a boiler plant. The second section of this paper examines measures that should be included in a maintenance program aimed at preserving boiler efficiency.

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Analytical Method for Evaluation of Total System Options©

This paper presents an example of a total system model which allows various scenarios to be investigated. It provides a client with concrete information on the effects of centralized or decentralized expansion, sizing of future units based on load growth forecasts, unit retirement schedules, possible fuel types, possible prime mover types, efficiency vs. capital cost comparisons, as well as other options. The total system modeling method provides the client with an analysis, in a graphical and tabular format, of the options that should be considered and the type of future expansion that provides the best opportunities and least risk.

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Steam Turbine Bypass Systems

This article discusses steam turbine bypass systems, sparger tubes, steam attemperation control, condenser dump-bypass system design, and noise problems in regard to current HEI and EPRI design practices and provides recommendations for future plant designs.

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Cogeneration Principles©

This paper outlines the fundamental principles of cogeneration, with illustrations of a number of common cogeneration cycles that can be employed in industrial and developer applications. Demonstrations of the heat-to-power performance applications or the typical prime movers are discussed.

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Energy Efficiency Improvements for Process Utility Systems at Garlock Sealing Technologies

This presentation begins with a historical overview of the Garlock facility and energy performance of the process utility support systems. It continues to discuss the approach for identifying energy efficiency improvements through the use of a team approach in executing comprehensive energy studies with local staff, energy consultants, and state and utility program support.

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Exceeding the Corporate Standard for Energy Efficient and Sustainability at Saint-Gobain's Albion, New York Facility

This paper dicusses efforts initiated in 2012 by Saint-Gobain’s Albion, NY facility to develop a comprehensive energy management and sustainability program to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions and water consumption.

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Influencing Cultural Change as a New Energy Manager

This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of an Energy Manager. To overcome potential obstacles, it is important to understand the major roles and responsibilities of a typical Energy Manager, evaluate the company's existing energy philosophy, recognize the first steps towards establishing the position within the company hierarchy, and recognize the value of establishing allies.

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The Benefits of Instilling an Energy Efficient Culture in an Organization

This paper discusses how to link energy management and lean manufacturing principles and initiatives that will strengthen an organization's continuous improvement culture. Topics include integrating energy into the value stream map; identifying, quantifying and estimating energy use; developing waste, recovery and alternate technology opportunities; and creating a “future state” energy map. Instructive case studies involving several manufacturing sectors are presented.

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